HISTORY OF SAMBO (part 1)
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAMBO.
Sambo is based on the techniques and technical elements of many national types of wrestling of the peoples of the USSR (Uzbek kurash, Georgian chidaoba, etc.), as well as judo kodokan.
The formation of sambo as an independent type of struggle began in the 1920s, the Dynamo Moscow club became the center of its development. The first competitions were held in 1923. Two directions for the further development of sambo were immediately outlined – sports and applied. Initially, the struggle was called “himself”, “self-defense”, “free-style wrestling”, “free-style wrestling”, until, already in the 1940s, the name that was customary for us was officially approved. At approximately the same time, the creation and improvement of sambo were simultaneously worked on, combining and systematizing the technical elements of various martial arts, A. Kharlampiev, V. Oshchepkov, V. Spiridonov and others.
On November 16, 1938, the All-Union Committee on Physical Culture and Sports issued an order On the development of freestyle wrestling, in which he recognized it as “extremely useful for Soviet youth.” This date is considered to be the official birthday of sambo, which very soon gained immense popularity in the country. In 1939 the first USSR championship was held. Its winners were N. Kulikov, V. Pitkevich, E. Chumakov, A. Budzinsky, K. Nakelsky, I. Ponomarenko, K. Koberidze, G. Ivanov.
The next championship was held in 1940. From 1941 to 1945, competitions were not held, in combat conditions, combat sambo was tested and developed.
In 1946, the All-Union Sambo Section was created (in 1959 it was transformed into the Sambo Federation of the USSR). Trainings are held, methodological literature is published, the Sambo Wrestling Rules are issued as a separate publication, the USSR championships are resumed (team championship was first played in 1949, and the championships were held annually from that moment on).
In 1970 D. Rudman opened the Sambo-70 school in Moscow, which remains the leading sambo club in Russia. Since the mid-1980s, female sambo has been actively developing in the country.
Soviet sambo wrestlers won the team championship at major international competitions more than once.
Currently, the main governing body is the All-Russian Sambo Federation, which organizes national and regional competitions among athletes of different age groups, as well as international tournaments. The country also has the Combat Sambo Federation of Russia, which holds its own tournaments (their rules differ from sports sambo and are as close as possible to the conditions of a real battle).
SAMBO IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA.
In the 1950s, sambo goes international. In 1957, Moscow hosted the first official meeting of Soviet sambo wrestlers with judo representatives – athletes from Hungary. The meeting was held according to the rules of judo and ended with a score of 47: 1 in favor of our athletes. In 1957, the first foreign Sambo Federation was formed in Bulgaria, and a year later the country championship was held there – the first tournament of this level abroad. At the same time, sambo wrestling is demonstrated in Brussels at the world exhibition Expo-58. Over time, national sambo federations are created in Japan, Mongolia, the SFRY, Great Britain, Iran, Spain, the USA and other countries.
In 1966, the International Amateur Wrestling Federation (FILA) officially recognized sambo as an international sport; an independent sambo commission was organized in the Federation. In the autumn of the same year, the Japanese team came to the USSR. In all four match matches (in Tbilisi, Chisinau, Kiev and Moscow), Soviet wrestlers won. And in 1967 in Riga the first ever international sambo competitions took place – the Friendship Tournament with the participation of teams from Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Mongolia, Japan and the USSR.
In 1972, the first European Sambo Championship was held in Riga in the same place. In addition to Europeans, teams from Iran, Mongolia and Japan took part in it (the European Championship was open and fighters from Asia were allowed to participate). 8 out of 10 gold awards were won by our fighters: V. Kullenen, A. Khosh, K. Gerasimov, V. Nevzorov, A. Fedorov, Ch. Yezerkas, S. Novikov, V. Kuznetsov.
The following year, the first world sambo championship was held in Tehran. In all weight categories (with the exception of one), the Soviet titles were won by Soviet athletes: G. Georgadze, A. Shor, M. Yunak, D. Rudman, A. Fedorov, Ch. Ezerkas, L. Tediashvili, N. Danilov, V. Klivedenko .
In 1977, the World Cup was first played in Spain, and the Pan American Championship was held in Puerto Rico. In 1981, sambo was included in the Bolivarian Games (South America). Since 1982, the traditional “Anatoly Kharlampiev Memorial” has been held. In 1983, Madrid hosted the first women’s world sambo championship. In the second half of the 1980s, the Asian Cup was first played in Japan and the first-ever world championship among young men in the USA.